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International Conference on Infectious Diseases in Gynecology and Obstetrics , will be organized around the theme “Addressing New Challenges towards the Obstetrics and Gynecology Care in Infectious Diseases”
Gynecology Infectious 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Gynecology Infectious 2019
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Infections in the female genitalia and the accessory sex organs are generally and cooperatively known as Gynecologic Infectious Diseases. However some of these diseases can be treated easily by the usage of antibiotics whereas others need to be paid serious attention to preventing them. Some of the infectious diseases are vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory diseases and sexually transmitted diseases. These diseases can also arise in pregnancy and their harshness increases with the progress of pregnancy in various cases. Infections like Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus infection, Rubella, Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis or Syphilis, Listeriotic, Bacterial Vaginitis can harm the fetus as well affect Labour or choice of drug delivery method. To avoid these kinds of diseases, personal hygiene is of supreme importance. All the above stated diseases can be treated by providing the accurate dosages of antibiotics like Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporin’s, Metronidazole, and Penicillin’s.
Women have unique health issues. And several health issues that affect equally for men and women. UK HealthCare proposes widespread healthcare for women in all stages of their life. Which consist of obstetrics and gynecology care through UK Women’s Health Obstetrics and Gynecology as well as focused primary care through the Center for the Improvement of Women’s Health. Infectious Diseases in Gynecology and Obstetrics services include care for the period of labor and delivery, including high-risk pregnancies; treatment of pelvic pain and fibroids; and menopause management and midlife health.
Vaccine is mostly 100% effective in inhibiting precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva and vagina, and genital growths caused by HPV. Vaccination is the most effective tool to inhibit HPV infection and HPV-related disease. Vaccines are prophylactic, vaccination previously expose to HPV will result in the supreme public health benefit. Gynecologists and Obstetrician can play a vital role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases, which includs pertussis, influenza, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis. One dose of Cervarix affords protection against HPV 16/18 infection with robust antibody titers well above natural infection titers.
Hysteroscopy is a normal aggressive intervention that can be used to analyze and treat various intrauterine and endocervical difficulties. Growing anomalies of the müllerian duct system characterize some of the most fascinating illnesses that obstetricians and gynecologists encounter. In addition, improvements in assisted reproductive technology permit certain women with müllerian duct anomalies to conceive and deliver healthy babies. The overall survival rate for vulvar cancer after normal surgical excision was less than 25%. The vagina stays in close proximity to the bladder and urethra anteriorly, which raises the risk of accidental injury to these structures in surgery. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important reason of disability and death in postoperative hospitalized gynecologic patients which needs gynecologic surgery. Adhesiolysis, Colporrhaphy, Endometrial ablation, Hysterectomy, Myomectomy, Oophorectomy, Trachelectomy, Tubal Surgeries, Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) and Vulvectomy are the therapies involved in Gynecology. Reproductive endocrinology and urogynecology is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology.
British Society meant for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology to promote the summary and study of clinical methodologies to pediatric and adolescent gynecology and deliver a multidisciplinary forum for discussion, education and training. There are several specialist services which are provided by central government, one of which stated one part of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Girls usually start menstruating between the ages of 11 to 14 and it is absolutely normal to have rather abnormal periods during the first two years of menstruation. Pain and bleeding are the most common causes for adolescents.
The uterus develops from an organ that weighs 70g along with a cavity of nearly 1mL to an organ that weighs more than 1000g that can accumulate with a fluid area of nearly 20 L. The uterus becomes ovoid. The uterus is completely palpable in the abdomen at about 12- 14 weeks of gestation. More than 50% of gravid females complain of back pain during pregnancy, which may also due to relaxin levels during pregnancy or paraspinous muscle spam. About 4-6per 1000 women will have scoliosis. Osteoporosis doubles the bone loss rates of a menopause of female, reversibly losing about 2% of bone during the first 20 weeks of gestation.
Around 3-5% of live births are complicated by a birth defect each year totaling around 120,000 babies. Additionally, women taking any kind of medication have more than doubled in the last 30 years. The use of Drug is a rare source of birth defects, but several medications can increase the likelihood of emerging a birth defect. Post term pregnancy is well-defined as a pregnancy that covers to 42 0/7 weeks and more. The reported occurrence of post term pregnancy is nearly 3-12%. Risk factors for definite post term pregnancy contain prim parity, prior post term pregnancy, male gender of the fetus, and genetic factors. Antepartum stillbirths account for more perinatal deaths than either difficulties of prematurity or unexpected infant death syndrome. Hyperemesis gravid arum is the most severe form, which leads to volume depletion, electrolytes and acid-base imbalances, nutritional insufficiencies, and ultimately death. Severe hyperemesis demanding hospital admission arises in 0.3-2% of pregnancies. pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy which states a benign dermatitis that commonly arises late in the third trimester of a first pregnancy which leads to Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP). Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks may affect the pregnancy.
The common application of routine cervical cancer selection has significantly enhanced physicians' skill to detect cancerous and precancerous changes of the cervix. Globally, the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been distinguished in as many as 99.7% of cervical cancer. It is assessed that 50% of women analyzed with invasive cervical cancer have never had a Papanicolaou test, and 10% have not had a Papanicolaou test in the 5 years prior to diagnosis. Sadly, despite widespread screening and treatment of pre-invasive lesions, there are still approximately 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United Kingdom each year and roughly 4,000 annual deaths from the disease. Pregnancy tests are done by detecting human chorionic gonadotropin. The treatment of pregnancy involves a multifaceted approach using 3 main diagnostic tools i.e. history and physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and ultrasonography.
There are different methods of contraception are involved in the field of gynecology, including long-acting reversible contraception, hormonal contraception, barrier methods, emergency contraception, permanent contraception, such as vasectomy and tubal ligation but Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is a contraceptive that lasts for a long time. In the countries where 1/2 of these at-risk women were not practicing contraception, opportunity (availability) was a major factor in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.
Globally, around 20-30 million legal abortions are performed yearly, with another 10- 20 million abortions are done illegally. Above 40% of women will end a pregnancy through abortion at some time in their reproductive lives. Early pregnancy loss or miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy which is done before 20 weeks. Embryonic causes of impulsive abortion are the predominant etiology and account for 80-90% of miscarriages. Patients with impulsive abortion usually present with a history of vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and passage of tissue. After the tissue passes, the vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain decreases. Ectopic pregnancy which ultimately leads to death of the fetus. Without suitable diagnosis and treatment, ectopic pregnancy can become a life-threatening situation.
Main amenorrhea is the failure of menses to arise by age 16 years, in the presence of normal growth and secondary sexual characteristics. Anovulation is a not a syndrome but a signal, in the same way that polycystic ovaries are the manifestation of a major infection process. Infertility affects around 13-14% of reproductive-aged couples. It is well-defined as the failure to conceive after 1 year of suitably timed, unprotected intercourse. About 1-2% of women with unsuitably managed an ovulatory bleeding eventually may produce endometrial cancer. Polycystic ovary syndrome may result from abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. A woman is identified with polycystic ovaries, if she has 12 or more follicles in at least 1 ovary.
A shorter menstrual cycle (<25 days) is the most common change in menstrual cycle. However, once ovulation occurs, the lateral phase remains fairly constant at 14 days. Consequently, premenopausal and menopause of women are often exposed to unopposed estrogen for long periods, and this exposure can lead to endometrial hyperplasia, Osteoporosis, Insomnia, Schizophrenia, Panic disorders, obsessive- compulsive and bipolar disorders. In United Kingdom, 1.3 million Women reach menopause annually. Although most women transition to menopause without experiencing psychiatric problems, an estimated 20% have depression at some point during menopause.
Reproductive and fetal tissues are birthplaces of stem cells and targets for regenerative medicine. Such treatments in gynecology are still in the preclinical and clinical phases, and the field of gynecology has focused on these interventions for fetal therapies. Regenerative medicine approaches HSC with high dose chemotherapy in treatment of different types of tumor Repair and replacement. Engraftment of stem cells could produce endometrial tissue regeneration. In many ovarian and testicular disorders, they help understanding differentiation and functioning of the gonads by Stem cells in the treatment of infertility. Stem cells can be used in different parts of obstetrics and gynecology. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been used to set up therapeutic strategies, prenatal transplantation, utero gene therapy and IVF for research and treatment.
The common effective ovary produces a follicular cyst 6-7 times per year. Mostly, these functional cysts are self-limiting and resolve within the period of a normal menstrual cycle. In rare case, a cyst persists longer or becomes enlarged. Meanwhile ovaries produce physiologic cysts in menstruating women; the probability of a benign process is higher in women of reproductive age. Usually, no treatment is necessary and most of these cysts resolve spontaneously within 6-12 weeks. In rare situations, operative intervention may be needed to treat these cystic masses. Ovarian cysts are the most common fetal and infant tumor, with a prevalence exceeding 30% the incidence of ovarian carcinoma is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 women per year. Tumors of low malignant potential make up approx. 20% of malignant ovarian tumors, whereas less than 5%are malignant germ cell tumors and 2% are granulosa cell tumors.
SRH services include family planning services, community contraception clinics, integrated GUM and SRH services and young people's services. They provide a variety of amenities including contraception provision and advice, sexual health treatment and advice, pregnancy related care, abortion related care, cervical screening, psychosexual therapy, PMS treatment, colposcopy services, fertility treatment and care and gynecology treatment and care. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an important element of the collective right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.
In the past two decades, the practice of gynecology and women's health has been transformed Like Fertility regulation, Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening, Menopausal Practice, Surgical Techniques for Benign Disease, Gynecologic Oncology, Hereditary Ovarian and Breast Cancer, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility.